Ch.20 : Water Vésuvien  

Pompeii and Herculaneum is located as many other ancient Vesuvian cities in the Ager vesuvianum, a large valley around Vesuvius well for 200 kms.  The eruptions and lava material made this extremely fertile plain rich in minerals; this is not a case that the same name derives from the Latin Campania "Felix Campaniae" or rich country for the same agricultural wealth. When we speak of volcanic earth, including talking about lack of water course as it evaporates into the depths by volcanic glows.  Pompeii and many other cities of the plain were fed into a first moment of its origins Sarnum of water that ran nearby, but it will soon become insufficient.

With the annexation of the region to Rome as Coloniae Corneliae Veneriae, the water needed increases as cities grow and prosper. In a first moment, the waters from the Apennine sources of Benevento region feed the whole Vesuvian area, Pompei, Herculaneum, Stabia, Nuceriae, Oplontis, Bosco and even Neapolis are fed by these waters that soon they too will become insufficient.

The opportunity of a larger water system is given by the installation of the Silla Naval Fleet at Misenum extremely strategic position was possible because by controlling the Bay of Neapolis, and an easier route and easy to nearby settlements as important and Cuma.  The most important waters of the plain of the River Serinum were those that had its sources in the region Avellinum at Serinum, and had the necessary strength to reach the Misenum and therefore supply the entire full, understood Neapolis .  An important and extensive project for Rome to browse both road these waters from the mountains to feed the new Campanes colonies.

The aqueduct of Aquee Augustae was built in the 1st century AD the year 10 AD, with a length of 145 km;  in a first moment was erroneously attributed to the Emperor Claudius and Augustus precisely.  He was born natural pools Food once water sources Mount Serinum What converged in the vicinity of Avellino.  By these waters traversed a long road, almost everything on the surface, to reach around Palmae. Ici une premier ramification permettait d'atteindre Pompéi, Oplontis, Stabiae. Here a first branching allowed to reach Pompeii, Oplontis, Stabiae.  Then the water went into the plain of Mount Vesuvius up to Cisternum (Tank), and one second branch went to Herculaneum, and continuing until the Neapolis, Puteolis, so Bacolis Misenum.

Thanks to an inscription recalling the period of Constantine placed behind the network can know the name of Consul Decimus Satrius Ragonianum, head waters of campane conduit.
 In 1910, excavation work was conducted on the North side of the City of Pompeii and foundations were found, it was fortified walls remains missing in these places, a large wall line 2 m opus quadratum and a tower base incertum opus, it was the already mentioned door Capuae missing among the doors (see Door Capuae, c. Walls and doors).

Under the base of the tower, was found a partially closed channel.  Part of this channel was actually already come to light during the first phase of work, but it was not possible to identify or establish if he went or if he stopped the.
 As for the water supply of Pompeii, one must distinguish a first or earliest period last Pompeians take water from the river Sarnum most likely, the important rivers, little away from the city, and deified by Subsequently, and other watercourses or then dug inside the city, or even rainwater.  More articulated, is against the study on the supply of drinking water by an aqueduct in Pompeii, especially because we have no literary sources relating to Campans aqueducts, at least in this first moment.

 Many are against the evidence of the checks carried out and the technical staff at the water system in the city Vesuvius as castellum aquae, the pillars for the "overflow" diramations pipes and the valves used.
 As for the construction period of a Pompeian aqueduct, there are three assumptions supported by research: 1) the aqueduct was built at the time of the founding of the Roman colony by Augustus era;  2) the aqueduct was built during the reign of Emperor Augustus and it was actually a branch of the great aqueduct built at that time in Campania, and powered by sources of Serinum River;  3) the aqueduct was built under the Emperor Claudius.  The second hypothesis is the most common among specialists in time since Augustus, many construction projects were carried out in Campania, by the will of the emperor.

To support this, it was necessary to take into account the technical construction of the original parts of the aqueduct, which are technical opus reticulatum also belonging to Castellum aquae and that can be dated from the period of Augustus so we hold that the aqueduct of the ancient city of Pompei, is fed by the waters of Serinum and probably its parts opus latericium be attributed to restorations performed in the period after the earthquake of 62 AD .
 In such a case we confirm, was the inscription found in Pozzuoli (Puteolis ..), the text in a first moment was not read correctly, but after a closer reading, allowed to check the fault about a " heart (Atori, Aug aquae (ustae, "renseignait indication of the presence of an aqueduct, the Aqua Augustus to Puteolis.

To this must be added first epigraph that found in the territory of the Municipality of Serino or one transfers the restoration work done in time Costantinienne on "aqueductum Augusteii sinkhole."  The third hypothesis about the chronology of the aqueduct, bringing its construction in Claudian period, is based on a few lead fistulas, set an aqueduct and found in the Phlegrean area on which was postponed the name "Claudii Augustii" with name the aqueduct which was recognized in the first time.  Regarding the water supply of Pompei and the sources that fed water pipes, some assumptions: 1) the sources are those of Serinum in the Apennines, 2) are the sources of Avella in a first time and then that of Serinum (... anyway .. mixed with the first), and finally 3) the sources are located on the slopes of Vesuvius.

To this must be added first epigraph that found in the territory of the Municipality of Serino or one transfers the restoration work done in time Costantinienne on "aqueductum Augusteii sinkhole."  The third hypothesis about the chronology of the aqueduct, bringing its construction in Claudian period, is based on a few lead fistulas, set an aqueduct and found in the Phlegrean area on which was postponed the name "Claudii Augustii" with name the aqueduct which was recognized in the first time.  Regarding the water supply of Pompei and the sources that fed water pipes, some assumptions: 1) the sources are those of Serinum in the Apennines, 2) are the sources of Avella in a first time and then that of Serinum (... anyway .. mixed with the first), and finally 3) the sources are located on the slopes of Vesuvius.

In particular the researchers support the first theory, and they reconstruct the route of the long aqueduct that snaked for tens of kilometers.  The deferred course and supposedly holds this many points in the description made in studies in the 16th century by the Viceroy of Naples who wanted to restore the old Serino aqueduct to carry water in Naples; sur les anciens documents en langue napolitaine, on peut lires:….. on the old documents in Neapolitan language, can lire ... ..

"..... And this water not only went to the designated cities in the projects, but also to other sites, because in the Palmae plan, a diramation was decided that was up Nolae, and when they was fortified in the excavation works were found the dictated pipes ... And further south of this path in the town of Palmae, a new diramation was decided to supply the country Pompeii, and through it all the cities and villas by it derived ergo Oplontis, Stabiae and Bosco farms, because in these places the water was necessary ... .And continued the journey to Neapolis or foot of the Vesuvius mountain was built a tank shell that was drifting towards the coast in the direction of the city Hercules' .... "

Therefore seek to determine the exact sources of the Pompeian aqueduct, the Kyoto Institute of Japan Studies Paleological performed in Pompeii, a few samples in the tank of the Baths of Stabiae, in the pillars for the "overflow" and the castellum aquae positioned 42 m height; en particulier,  especially in the latter building, the limestone remnants were sampled in two areas on the bottom of the basin and on the walls, above the water introducing hole where limestone band was present.The samples have also been performed in a few villa near Pompeii, and that is to say in the old Torre Annunziata Oplontis, in the pool of the Villa At Stabiae and near Thermes Palmae Nunziante. Finally search the sites around.

Chemical analyzes performed on the remains of limestone champions, have established that the waters of Stabiae Baths and pillars of "overflow" the fountains of the crossroads, the aqueduct at Sarno in locality Mure d'Arce there and what Palmae whose conduct is opus reticulatum, came from all sources of Serinum.
 Then analyzes have established that were different from the fountains of waters against that fueled driving opus latericium of the aqueduct of Palmae for which it could be assumed that when the aqueduct was rebuilt in time Costantinienne were used from different sources those of the aqueduct Augustus. Very interesting also analyzes champions limestone taken from the castellum aquae.

The results of these analyzes would suggest therefore that the water was coming in Pompeii, just before the eruption of Vesuvius, was not that of the sources Serinum perhaps because the aqueduct that used them had been damaged the earthquake of 62 AD;  pending it in its entirety, in Pompeii, we planned to get water from other sources, different than at the time of this study have not been defined encor.
 Also, as he said, analyzes have shown that the waters of the tank Baths of Stabiae and pillars for "overflow" were those of Serinum, one could infer that the water system in these buildings at the time of the eruption of Vesuvius they were not in operation.
 In consideration of all that has been analyzed and discussed, one can make the following assumptions:

1) some specialists argue that Pompeii had an aqueduct at the time of the deduction of the colony, fed by the waters that had just Avella and that time Augustus was developed with mixed waters in the same locality and Serinum sources.  This hypothesis remains present because they have not been found the remains of this aqueduct any datable to the last phase of the Republic and its reconstruction remains hypothetical.  To confirm or deny this hypothesis would be timely indeed dig underneath the castellum aquae to determine any previous phases, given that today the visible building seems to date from the Augustus era.  If this is accurate alor hypotese it would simply mean that Pompei was supplied by a source to it, not very distant to reduce travel distances.
 2) the aqueduct of Pompei was a diramation the aqueduct of Augustus Serinum, which supplied the entire region, and which had in it the waters of so many other sources to increase pressure and seen as the distance ; il devais se détacher être Palmae et Sarnum. he had to come off and be Palmae Sarnum.

3) it is likely that part of the aqueduct built in Augustus era, for reasons unknown to us were restored in time of Claudius, perhaps for Puteolis area because here fistulas postpone the name of the Emperor .
 4) in the last 79 years before, Pompeii was served by an aqueduct to which the waters were not those of Serinum, as evidenced by the chemical analysis of limestone taken from the walls of the castellum aquae.  It is therefore possible for an event unknown to us, may be the 1 ° 62 quake, it was no longer possible to use the leads of the aqueduct of Serinum and then to Pompeii was appealed to the construction of another Aqueduct using other sources, they should not be very remote

Today, based on our knowledge, we know that at least in the time of Augustus the waters that fed Pompeii and Herculaneum and other cities were, that of Augustus Aqueduct Serinum and therefore would be very useful ask who was the deity depicted on the walls of Castellum Aquee Pompei and that it dates from the time of Augustus. To answer this question, we can make two assumptions encor:
 1) the deity represented the God of Water and probably the God Sarnum.
 2) the deity represented Serinium God, and in this case we are facing the first iconographic representation of Serinium.

In Pompeian houses through the roof opening in the Atrium, the welcomed compluvium rainwater that fell in Impluvium and buried here in a large tank, as well as a reserve of water for house by a small and placed here, we could use it for the needs of the house. L'aqueduc du Mont Serino donnera une amélioration pour le ravitaillement hydrique; The aqueduct of Serino Mont give an improvement to the water supply; Castellum Aquee on the heights of the city, and they were divided into three main pipelines;  using the natural slope of the city, through lead pipes under the sidewalks, the water was at junctions or to regain pressure, dated back pilasters on which were placed tanks that were pressure regulators. High availability of water that the city served by these 40 public fountains and for the rich, she came straight into the house, not to mention the use to which it was in the baths.

There was not a real sewer system, except in the area close to the Forum.  The unloading water flooded the streets also out of the enclosure walls by special openings.  The sidewalks were high respects to the street and to cross it was necessary to use the 'crosswalk' formed by large lava blocks placed there;  in case of heavy rain the streets were completely flooded and these passages are checked very effective too.  For latrines had adopted an evacuation system for solid in underground pipelines, the cloaca, while the liquid was collected as was a starch acid and therefore intended for corporations of Foulonnes, public laundromats.

However Pompey certainly not because Sarnum forgot the primary source of water in the city, and beyond these waters were the result of fundamental importance to be able to get the goods from the coast to the hinterland of Campania; after that, we can think of two river deities venerated in the Vesuvian city, the God Sarnum he assured the Pompeians shops, and the God Serinum he assured them for a few decades, the supply of 'potable water.