Ch.30: City of Oplontis

The Oplontis excavations are at the heart of the modern town of Torre Annunziata (Naples 20 km).
 The name Oplontis is attested in Tabula Peutingeriana, a medieval copy of an ancient map on existing roads in Italy at the time of the Roman Empire. In it, the place name Oplontis shows some structures positioned between Pompeii and Herculaneum.
 Therefore Oplontis was attributed to a number of archaeological discoveries, which are referred to a suburb of Pompeii: a residential villa, Villa Poppea, and a rustic villa attributed to Lucius Crassius Tertius.

In these houses, next to large bodies of victims of the eruption, we found a large quantity of gold and silver coins, with many pieces of fine jewelry that called at the time the SPA, in the Oncino area called the or, as the archaeologist A. Maiuri surgais the spa  Installing dedicated to the Roman consul Marcus Crassus Frugis.

VILLA of POPPEE

The main monument, unique visitors, is dedicated to the Villa Poppea included among the assets that UNESCO has defined as "World Heritage" grandiose building residential half of the first century BC and enlarged in imperial times, was under restoration in When the eruption of 79 AD.  It is attributed to Poppea, second wife of Emperor Nero, but in any case falling within the heritage of the imperial family.

Atrium (5)
Was the heart of the oldest house in the area (mid first century BC), the main home environment where people have spent most of the day.
 The lobby is kind Tuscan: the ceiling (rebuilt) has a central aperture, compluvium For the rainwater passage collected in a basin below the impluvium.  The ground, a white mosaic, has a polychrome meander around impluvium.  What most strikes the visitor is the decoration of the walls, among the best examples of the Second Pompeian style: between light and shadow, painting details and vibrant colors, the illusion of perspective implies columns, ceilings The views shrines, landscapes, cities, who sees behind the open doors and porches.

Garden ( 20)
The viridarium is a big flower bed, where he cultivated fruit trees, surrounded by a drainage channel terracotta waters.
 On the tiles in the upper part of the walls have been restored to its eaves original boxes terracotta (SIME) With garlands and head drip Silen.  Below is a band with ovals stucco.
 The garden wall decorations to host a black and red, with plants and birds especially in the lower register, in a game of expansion prospects.

Big Room (15)
Probable Hall (oecus) Symposium, is one of the most majestic and elegant environments of the villa, decorated with frescoes and a splendid sea view, once visible and closer today.
 The floor mosaic in white fabric has a black stripe along the walls and insertion of polychrome marble tiles.
 The frescoes, beautiful performance and sober chromaticism accentuate the illusion of expanding the real size of the room.

Triclinium ( 14)
The large dining room and sumptuous beds confirmed the walls on which we have to eat their meal, and the center of the room was a mess: the floor mosaic, white stands in a sort of vestibule real triclinium the walls are painted in the other style, with columns of foresight, cusps circular temples, closed-door passages, a door beyond which is a garden, maybe a sanctuary.

Kitchen ( 7)
The room, almost black, is paved in cocciopesto: on the north side, is a large office with the support plate, where they cook the food, and three small arcs form a semi-circular slot designed to store firewood.
 On the east side is a circular tank can be used for a liquid discharge on the South side walls had to support two tables for food preparation.

Porticus Garden ( 13)Two symmetrical porches Filet environments for the south of the building.
 The floor has a white mosaic with perpendicular lines and sideband black tiles. The wall is decorated with panels of type IV (median black band socket red, white upper register architectures in perspective and garlands).
The columns are fluted and decorated with white and red and white scales. Les murs entre les colonnes sont Opus craticium , The walls between the columns are Opus craticium, From lightweight masonry consists of wooden frames filled with boulders attracted to Malta.

Cubiculum (amb.11)

The cubicles are the bedrooms and the villa were very good: on the sides of cubiculum represented here are rated niches with barrel vaults, where the beds were housed.  II style paintings with simple and elegant stucco on the walls and ceiling.

Péristyle ( 32)
This has peristyle columns combined with a smooth inner wall in a large flower bed, there is a fountain decorated like the walls inside, a red background with plants and birds.
 The floor is marble with cocciopesto inserts.The ceiling was rebuilt with the support of the vine, as was done in ancient times.
On this peristyle overlooked by various quarters, some of them for domestic: why it was described as "servile."

Péristyle (40)
A large portico with three arms (porticus triplex) Said of a large open space, another viridarium, Secluded garden and contrast with the north of the villa.
 The columns, painted white, are smooth on the bottom, grooved on the top of the frescoed walls are attributed to the IV style.

Corridor ( 46)
Served link between the central core of the villa and pool: Paved cocciopesto has benches along the brick wall and window at the top between Fourth style fresco painted backgrounds.
 Very interesting ceiling, faithfully reconstructed, divided into panels by the beams in the recall rich figurative syntax similar decorations in Domus Aurea Nero in Rome: one can imagine how that environment at that time, in its magnificence, and introduce those rendered at the sight of the large pool.

Corridor ( 46)
Served link between the central core of the villa and pool: Paved cocciopesto has benches along the brick wall and window at the top between Fourth style fresco painted backgrounds.
 Very interesting ceiling, faithfully reconstructed, divided into panels by the beams in the recall rich figurative syntax similar decorations in Domus Aurea Nero in Rome: one can imagine how that environment at that time, in its magnificence, and introduce those rendered at the sight of the large pool.

Salon ( 21)
This large room, probably a room for lunch, north arcade breaks the villa is a kind of body advanced to the garden.
The oecos, built along the porch to a construction later the oldest nucleus of the atrium, perhaps in the time of Augustus, in the form of propylon, with two large fluted columns and covered with plaster White. L'espace entre les colonnes ont dû être fermés par des portes. The space between the columns had to be closed by doors.
 The mosaic floor of the hall is made entirely of fabric striped white and black double on the side, with the presence, in the spaces between the columns of stylized plant motifs.
This architectural solution, the highly monumental character, was adopted in the villas of the northern districts of the Empire Villas and model of otium, As shown some wall decorations.

Porches ( 33-34)
The two porches on the north side of the villa, with white plaster columns coated with fine grooves, advanced along the body "oecus (amb.21), creating a grand and monumental state.
At the foot of the columns in the ground, runs the water stream terracotta.  The floor of the arcade is a mosaic with white tiles with black stripe on the side. The mural is in the fourth style: the lower area is a black background decorated with birds and plant pots, the middle zone alternating panels of red and yellow decorations and architectural point of view, the upper band, a white background, has kiosks and walls decorated with the frame.
 In one of these arches were discovered four statues of Centaurs and child statue with duck waiting to be redeposited here.

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VILLA of LUCIUS CRASSIUS TERTIUS

Discovered by chance in 1974 while we were working on the construction of the middle school gymnasium Parini, the villa is about 300 meters from the villa of Poppea.  Were almost entirely brought to light the main building and part of the building structures and the surrounding streets.  In a first moment was given to this complex the name of Villa B with respect to the first said Villa Poppea;  she found on an uncharted insula of the City of Oplontis, bounded on the North by a road on which open shops that do not communicate with the habitatif complex, and provided living quarters situated on the top floor.  It is believed that the activity of the villa was mainly aimed at the marketing of agricultural products, and not to their production. It was found at the scene a seal on what we believe to recognize the owner's name or manage this thriving commercial enterprise, its name is Lucius Tertius Crassius.

The core of this complex consists of a large open space with gravel and surrounded by an imposing colonnade, a double row of gray clay columns with Doric capitals, dating from the second century.  Was here probably the place of loading for the goods to be sold .. All around, many rooms, was allowing the storage of amphorae for wine, oil, garum and fruit; other materials have was found at the scene, such as balancing weights or fruit for processing and creation of Garum, a flavored wine fruit.

 The upper floor is entirely occupied by the residential area of the owner, which is fairly common with paintings of the fourth style and a schematic example of second style belonging to the first construction phase.  Among the many discoveries, a safe in a wooden structure reinforced with iron plates and strips, ornamented with copper and silver and bronze with a closing complex system, with the front, inlaid letters money, the Greek name manufacturers: Pythonymos, Pytheas and Nikokrates active in the workshop of Heraclides.  In one of the rooms on the south side were the skeletons of several people who had sought refuge at the time of the eruption, carrying mainly coins and jewelry.