Ch.18 : Shops and Stores  

Thermopolium. Pompeii was, like all cities, solitary neighborhoods and vibrant neighborhoods.  The sixth region seems to have been particularly peaceful.  Except consular street that led to the gate of Herculaneum, its streets were uncrowded.  It circulates either in front of large facade walls behind which to hide the houses or at the foot of walls surrounding the gardens.  The shops are few and also there's so many thermopoliums elsewhere.  Street of Mercury, it was only one thermopolium, but this is the most interesting of Pompeii.  At its bar marbled they sold hot drinks kept in vases. Bottles, glasses, bottles of different shapes rested on benches against the wall at the end of the counter.  In another corner, a furnace used to cook.  A small room, opening behind the counter, customers who were receiving a meal or drink longer.

On its walls, perhaps to pay his notes, an artist painted the scenes of any kind that usually happen in the thermopoliums these: People seated and drinking and written next to them, orders that they give "a little cold water"; « encore un verre de vin de Setinum ». "Setinum another glass of wine."  Top, hooks, hang victuals: ham, sausage, pudding, etc. ; other consumers play, cheat and get angry;  then bawdy scenes.  On the wall of the next room, we land the provision of wine made in a vacuum that also shaped tank in amphorae.  The thermopolium communicates with a big house, probably a hotel, equipped with a dining room, kitchen with large stove, many rooms.  Many hotels or inns had their flow, with bar opening onto the street.

This is not the only thermopolium decorated with paintings and legends engraved on the walls;  in another, two players compete on a whim: "this is not three but two," and fight; le propriétaire, the owner, pushes the door, telling them in bad Latin, "You Batté you so";Furthermore we give this advice: "there are judges in Pompeii. »  "On one wall of thermopolium held by Edone we read:" Edone said here, we drink for an ace; pour deux, for two, or drink the best; for four, get Falernian. » "It is on the walls of this thermopolium we painted the election poster signed by seribibi, those who drink later.

The thermopoliums widely opened onto the street as a shop.  A masonry counter coated usually irregularly broken marble slabs, formed the front of vases there were embedded in which were kept at the disposal of the buyers or consumers certain foods: olives, brine, oil , pulses, etc.  A small outbreak struck in some of these vessels allowed to retain and pay the consumer hot drinks; these are called thermopoliums thermopolium for this reason. Sometimes the front counter was decorated with many carved marble slabs and well balanced or paintings.
 Some of these are really beautiful thermopoliums: marble countertop, in a beautiful room, beautiful lararium, and behind, the parts for consumers to be cited for their elegance .. Often these counters were attached to a hotel.  Several stands against the wall wearing glasses and bottles had to present these institutions, both edible and thermopoliums shops.

Counters that had as vases, without apparatus for heating, were shops;  probably groceries, but probably not thermopoliums.
Countertops without vases of any kind certainly belonged to the shops;  one looks in vain to specify what specific things were selling it.  The groove of the shopping slid threshold where the shutters were closed, at its end, usually interrupted, giving way to a small door, the shutters closed, allowed the entry.  The museum preserves Pompeii molding one of these fences.  Worn or broken, the groove was wholly or partly replaced by an iron bar. On the inside of the amounts of a shop two parallel lines drawn at the point indicated to the worker the precise location of the threshold where he was to dig the groove and largeur____

 Hostels or Couponae were quite numerous in Pompeii, especially, as in all cities, near doors. Two behind the door of Herculaneum were made . Home to two tricliniums and others near the door of Stabiae were hostels, perhaps discoveries buildings, there are a few years out of the door of Vesuvius;  it recognizes the greater their place, the number of rooms and common areas, across stoves, sloping sidewalks lowered to provide access to cars;  to graffites inscribed on the walls.  A client of one of the hostels that we have mentioned has written on the wall to the cause of his discontent:
Miximus in lecto, fateor; Miximus in lecto, fateor; peccavimus kospes ; peccavimus kospes; Si dices quare : nulla matella fuit. If dices quare: nulla Matella leaking. « Hôte, j'ai... » ; "Host, I ..." mieux vaut ne pas traduire___ better not traduire___

HOTELS. The hotels also existed in the interior of the city. Sittius that of, at the sign of the elephant, had a triclinium with three beds and convenient installation;  the less said the poster (IV, 1. 45). There were large basements where was stable and, at the entrance, a terminal to assist riders to ride. Not far away another much larger hotel, has, in a large garden, individual firms.  In a hostel in the same region, travelers have written on the walls of their passing mention and sometimes their impressions: a praetorian the first cohort stayed the night and also a brave man named Vibius Restitutus, sorry to be separated from his wife Urbana;  Julius C. Speratus want any kind of prosperity Pouzzole his homeland.  A fuller named Cresces an inn frequented the street from Nola.  When he had drunk, his universal benevolence was displayed on the walls, on all columns of the peristyle, "Long live the Salinenses," he wrote, and those of Nocera and Campanienses;  all the suburbs, all the neighboring towns had their turn. He did not forget his fellow citizens live the Pompeians nor his corporation live the Fullers, and he signed so that nobody ignores: Cresces foulon___

BAKERY. One of the most common industries in Pompeii is that of the bakery.  In almost all the islands, there are one or more bakers.  The mills occupied the courtyard.  A solid cone, standing, hard stone, fixed on a stationary base formed by the lower part.  The upper part, consisting of two hollow cones joined by their top, not unlike an hourglass.  The lower cone is exactly followed suit on the full cone, and in turn, the friction crushed by the grain that are poured through the opening of the inverted upper cone.  Two drilled holes externally at the junction of the two cones of the upper part of the staves which put the grinder into action.  Flour fell on the edge of the base which exceeded a little. Next in a room, the stone table used to shape the bread.  We can see, Stabiae street a mill rehabilitated.

The floor of the furnace, large paved brick was covered with a cap also brick except built lower course and the mouth, hard stone to better withstand the shock of the shovel. In front of the mouth, a long stone table through an opening communicated with the mess room.  The loader had only to present his shovel to receive the prepared paste or to give the baked bread he had just removed from the oven.  heat chamber protecting the crown and in front of the mouth, a chimney carried smoke.  At the bottom of the oven a container full of water used to extinguish when it caught fire, the cloth with which it was cleaning the oven.
 During cooking, a sheet metal plate with a handle, closed furnaces.  Several were found in place and, in the oven, the bread we could not remove, overcooked, charred itself, but retaining their shape.  Some wore May with a seal, the name of the baker.

Bakeries, attenaient one or two sales shops.  The boards on which were placed the loaves had a projection as a support masonry running along the wall or foot stone.  Considerable bakery occupied a large space in the first region.  She had two ovens, mills, six shops. The corner shop had dual front street Stabiae and the Diadumeni street, opposite the beautiful district of rue de l'Abondance.  The well decorated shop, paved with beautiful marble was probably used for the sale of delicate things, pastry;  in the shop 17 with two doliums almost buried, retail flour was sold.
 There are bakeries that communicate with rich homes. Several bakers were so rich and influential, as P. Paquius Proculus who was elected unanimously elected official.  Perhaps individuals were running a bakery and stood by their slaves to power, at home, watch them.

A bakery was installed in a house previously inhabited bourgeois: we have raised, into a tank, the edges of the impluvium. This example is not isolated.  In the fourth region, an old and noble peristyle was tuff, with the entire house, completely denatured by an industry that has established numerous tanks, dark rooms and vaulted, a huge wardrobe.  It was a dyer or a fuller. 

FULLONES.. The tread Pompeii formed a powerful corporation.  You can still follow their factories in the various operations of the trade. They cleaned fabrics treading them with their bare feet in tanks separated by small walls on the top of which, to jump, they supported their hands.  A series of paintings (Museum of Naples) from the foulerie Mercury street is this exercise and the various processes: the tread jump on fabrics, are suffering them, then the Card | and extend a cage clerestory under which burns sulfur in a stove. Then put them in press;  foulerie a street of Mercury kept building the body in which the press was enclosed. In this foulerie and in the street Stabiae. we found a deposit of earth smectite, natural soap with which fabrics were cleaned; on se servait aussi, pour cet usage, it is also used for this purpose, urine or potassium.

The foulerie we represent here is the street Stabiae;  is transformed into a private house foulerie.  After crossing the inviting atrium which preserved the impluvium, the bowl, the base of the statue-fountain and the cartibulum we meet, beyond the tablinum, instead of the garden, long tanks and where we trod .  On the left wall is a painting fullers celebrating their patron feast of Minerva.  They banquettent and drink as wine, ill advised, put struggling and the feast ends appearing in court where the accused and the complainant covered, from feet to head injuries.
 In large numbers we see in Pompeii where more smaller establishments where large vats of lead or clay based on a home.  These are probably dry cleaners.  These institutions are particularly numerous in the region and fourth in the sixth and the first island of the fifth region ___

OLIURUM. In two street shops of excavations Executive Forum brought together large earthen doliums where they sold oil, possibly grains, pulses, olives.
TANNERY.  Among Pompeian industries, it should be noted also the tannery.  There was a behind the monument of Eumachia. It is distinguished with stone sertables on which scraped the skins and tanks where they are left to macerate between two layers of tan;  the dwelling house was large and luxurious.  The most instructive tannery Pompeii, the most significant and best preserved, with its vast vats of fifteen, its tables, its water distribution is in the first region.  One who is well aware of the tanning processes can follow where all operations that have not changed since ancient times.  Found in this tannery craft tools, including the scraper and paring two mains.

VASARIUS.  It was a custom among the ancient vases to put in the graves, besides the urn where the bones were collected.  Families who had lead the deceased to his final resting or celebrating his birthday often bought, and drop them into the grave, vases and lamps. Also pottery workshops had settled near the neighboring burials of the Herculaneum gate, at about the height of the villa of Diomedes and the opposite side.  A wise restoration saved them from imminent destruction.  The ovens consist of a home on which a perforated platform of small holes through which passed the heat of the fireplace and covered with a cap;  by an opening similar to that of baker's ovens were placed there, for cooking, the modeled vessels.

SHOEMAKERS.  The shop and the workshop of a shoemaker occupied the corner of two streets.  A retired centurion Caesius Blandus, had established there in a shop owned and communicating with his house, one of his former soldiers who practiced this craft.  Found in the shop a stone table on which worked the shoemaker, the instruments of his trade.  He himself had engraved at the forefront on the wall the detail of a work he had performed.
 It has uncovered many instruments belonging to different trades: carpenters, locksmiths, masons, etc.  Those whose provenance was noted could be used to recognize the industries carried on in a number of shops.  We also have electoral posters by the names of most of the trades practiced in Pompeii. for a summary and more detailed explanations, we advice to follow the description of each Regio in detail.