Ch.13 : Architecture Private
Thanks to the exceptional archaeological documents have survived, Pompeii enables us to follow almost continuously the evolution of the family house type "italic", whether in luxurious mansions or modest houses of the working classes . Nous pouvons lancer aujourd'hui l' hypothèse de 5 models de domus : We can now start the assumption of 5 models of domus:
1) Domus de-Samnite Italic type. The center of this house is the Atrium, all main rooms are located here. Brings a wide corridor to a small hortum uncovered roof. No part about this type of garden. The House of the Surgeon is a clear example of this type of domus.
2) Type Roman Domus first dominion. A first Hellenistic influences began to be felt and become a well-defined hortum garden, although small in size. The Atrium remains the center of the domus. The House of the Tragic Poet is one example.
3) type of Imperial Domus. Following the conquest of Greece, Rome adopted the Greek house model has making a model and Roman imperial style and elegance will enrich the Roman habitation. A bright example is the Pompeii House of the Vettii. The rooms are located around the Peristyle.
4) Post-Imperial Domus. Even the previous model but more developed and sometimes elegant Atrium with summer and winter, with the addition of a summer and winter peristyle. A Pompéi un exemple de ce type est la Maison du Faune In Pompeii one such example is the House of the Faun
5) House of the period 'Pax-Romamae'. Peace between Rome and the provinces, no longer obliged to protect and strengthen the house. Un nouveau élément fait sa présence, un grand jardin de grands dimensions. A new element makes its presence, a large garden of great dimensions. The House of L.Tiburtinus (or Octavius Quarto) is one example
The fundamental nucleus, starting point of the successive developments, the house is centered on an atrium. One of the oldest and most complete examples here in the House of the Surgeon, the fourth century BC. J.-C. AD The atrium was the center of family life and answering two fundamental requirements: in a house designed as a building enclosed by high exterior walls, scatter light through an opening in the roof and collect rain water in the catchment basin at the center of the entrance, in correspondence of the opening, to route to a tank. In the atrium were placed on lararium, instead of family worship, and in ancient times, there was also the kitchen, with its focus around which the family took his meals. A small hallway fauces gave access to the atrium; around it a series of small rooms were arranged in a specific pattern and served for most of bedrooms cubicula; Both rooms open to the end of the side walls were intended to ancestor worship. Basically, we entered the tablinum originally Room spouses and dining room or reception room; on the side, a corridor leading to the hortus, small garden surrounded by a high wall.
In the second century BC. J.-C, after the Roman conquests in the East in the beautiful houses the influence of Hellenistic art led the merger of the traditional plan centered around the atrium and the plan of the houses of Greek type, focused on the peristyle , that is to say over a courtyard transformed into a garden, often adorned with pools, surrounded by a portico which gave several rooms. The introduction of the triclinium in the Roman house dates from this time: it was a dining room, usually adjacent to tablinum, where according to Greek customs, were placed three beds for the guests can take their meals elongated. This introduction of the peristyle instead of the old hortus resulted Other achievements parts stay, Diactaes, and reception overlooking this space and sometimes installing bathroom. Over the years the arrangement of rooms became more and more complex. The House of the Faun is a convincing and impressive example. The housing of small traders, artisans and freedmen had smaller dimensions and a simpler plan. Often they were next to each other, in the same building whose facade was pierced several entries; inside the rooms were set around an atrium impluvium without (atrium testudinatum) which gave the bedrooms on the first floor.
To meet the growing demand for housing as a result of the increase in population recorded in Pompeii in the imperial period, it was not even build houses with three floors. The shops, pharmacies and laboratories, including Pompeii presents solid evidence of life and meaning, often were one with the owner's home, located in the back room or on the upper floors. It is not uncommon to find open shops in parts located on either side of the entrance of the rich mansions and rented for this purpose by the owners.
- The plan of the House Surgeon gives us the fundamental example of a Pompeian house.
It opens onto the street by a gate and a narrow corridor (ostium and fauces). overlook a central courtyard, atrium (atrium tuscanicum), sheltered by the four roof projections; they advance towards the interior, so that rainy waters flow in the center of the atrium, in a pool, "impluvium 'where they are channeled into a cistern. At both ends of the atrium open, across their width, two other parts, "alae". At the bottom of the atrium and in front of the entrance, we find the "tablinum", the part most noble of the apartment, which serves as a meeting place for the family. It provides access to V "hortus", located backwards. With the high walls that surround it on all sides, without windows and without other openings as narrow exterior vents, drilled in the masonry for the purposes of ventilation, the house gives the impression of a small fortress.
This type, simple and austere, old Pompeian house maintains in its construction, square and massive, the simple lines and the limited number of parts, the pure character of the Italic house and family life it flowed. From there, we go at II'- century BC, a type that has been influenced and Hellenistic taste. The number of atriums increases; expands the peristyle and the garden; residential rooms multiply and have, according to the seasons, to the cooler or the sunniest parts of the building. This eventually occupy a "insula ,,;. It becomes a palace worthy of hosting a dynasty We have a model in the" Casa del Fauno which by its magnitude and nobility of its construction and the wealth of its decoration, murals and mosaic floors, décor inspired by great Hellenistic art, is a princely residence in the true sense of the word. During the Roman era, Pompeian house evolves naturally and folds to the Roman taste. It changes its type of construction and decoration. Throughout the period from the reign of Augustus to Nero and to Flavian, Pompeian house has no intention to expand and develop grandiose architectural lines.
One of the main reasons is that the V Planning crisis forced him to curtail and to save space, when it comes to private homes. By cons, is growing fashion decoration. If the area covered decreases and if the pieces are smaller, there is still more research 'in the color decor of the house. The profusion of colors, ornamentation, pomp, abuse scenic gardens in the order in coming to crush the beauty of the architectural composition. The bourgeoisie, having refined and enriched its requirements end up having because of the traditional arrangement of the Italian house. Les différents locaux changent de nature et de destination. The various local change their nature and destination. Next to the remains of the noble patrician or merchant plush building we see rise up the house of the petty bourgeois or of the shopkeeper who, at night, will take refuge in the attic of his shop. We see it locks into an industrial workshop, a hotel, a gambling house, a brothel, a discount which come to shelter tanks and draft animals that come from the countryside or neighboring communities. And thus, the lives of people escaping the discrete meditation inside the houses and we managed, more lively and immediate, by the thousand "voice" of which we find traces scattered everywhere on the walls.
Yet despite the variety and complexity of this admirable Overall, despite the infinite number of superimpositions and transformations, Pompeian house has kept through the centuries, unchanged character of the old house italics. It is still the "domus" with the use of a single family. Even in the commercial districts of the last period, in areas where the alterations were most profound in those areas where the intimacy of the "domus" seems choked and raped by the invasion of the shop and the workshop, in those areas where the shortage of space and overcrowding of the population require buildings to gain height by the raising of floors, the house continues none the less to form a core self, for one family or several related families. We do not find the big house in Pompeii report divided into several apartments, served by several independent staircases to each other, in fact this building rentals which are in Ostia, which was certainly a common type in Imperial Rome which is a prelude to our modern homes. The evolution in the construction of the house stopped at Pompeii in a transition phase between the "domus" patriarchal and apartment house. If the eruption of Vesuvius occurred some decades later years Pompeii would certainly transformed.
Instead of this rich and evocative variety of homes which we welcome, we would have had that classical type of an imperial city, with a greater or lesser number of large multi-storey buildings. Instead of an extreme variety in the use of building materials, we find ourselves in the presence of only one material, imposed by necessity, the only material that could suit the vertical development of buildings and boldness Roman architecture, that is to say: the brick.
- The small sculptures in marble and bronze and furniture are necessary complements of Pompeian house, in addition to the decorations in painting and mosaic; they constitute the indispensable ornament. The works of art from copies of Greek originals, these works of art in the cities of Campania and in Rome, showed the power that guided taste collectors and enthusiasts, are rare in Pompeii.
Also, with works of archaic, severe or mature, such as the Apollo Citaredo "(the" Casa del Citarista ") or V" Efebo "(the" Casa di P. Comelio Tegete ,,) or arcaïstique period such that V "Artemide" pompéienne and V "Apolline" "(the" Casa del Menandro "), there is a copy of" Doryphorus "of Policlète, V" Hercules Epitrapezios "Lysippus in, "Apollo" and "Diane" darting, reworking of bronzers Italiot. Even more rich and varied is the Hellenistic heritage; statuettes worked with fountains ornaments, of colonnades and gardens, such as the admirable series of small bronzes "danzante Fauno" (the "Casa del Fauno"), the "Satiro con l'ur" (the " Casa del Centenario "), the" Sileno ebbro "(the" Casa dei Marmi "), the" Narciso ", four" Placentari "(the" Casa dell 'Efebo "), the" Pescatore "(the" Casa della Fontana has mosaic "), the" assalito Cinghiale "(the" Casa del Citarista ").
During the period Neronian fashion and taste of small sculptures and reliefs in the decoration are increasing; the bacchanalian hermes, even small dimensions, multiply along the paths of the gardens, and small statuettes Amours of satyrs and animals, either scattered among the vegetation or placed at the edge of the fountains and canals; are suspended "swayed" and theatrical masks in between-column porticos, enhancing color and scenic direction of the house, and often found the echo of the original Hellenistic creation or neo reworking -Penthouse refined in these many products of decorative art.
- But except products of Greek art, Pompeii has also given us, in the interior of their homes, superb examples of the art of the Roman portrait: the "Llivia" (the "Villa dei Misteri" ), the "Marcello" discovered in recent years, and private prosopography, two superb bronzes Norbano Sorice C. and L. Cecilio Giocondo, and in marble, "Bruto minore" and Hermes del Comelio and Rufo Vesonio of Primo. It is especially in secondary arts furniture and dishes, however, that Pompeii offers us the immense wealth of its heritage: in beds, finely inlaid and decorated with small busts and statuettes, "cubicles" and "triclinia"; in the candelabra and lamps where industrious craftsman seems to surrender to the most joyous creation full reasons gusto, sometimes even grotesque and obscene; in stoves and stoves, in heavy cases "arcae" in the doors etc .; in the bronze vessels finally deformed so rich and varied and employment to think whether the development teenique a long tradition of workshops or Campanian Italo-Greek, as well as extensive experience in technical and food requirements in Pompei and to Rome, we have a strong passion for silverware, for luxurious dishes ("Casa dell'Argenteria" "Villa della Pisanella" "Casa del Menandro").