1 - Rome: Greek Introduction
From Troy to Aeneas 

Presentation

We will discover and analyze the history and vicissitudes of cities and civilizations of Greek and Roman times such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis and many others, which characterized the entire perimeter plain of this mountain that already in the times older ones were called Vesuvius. We could in no way begin this work of research and study, without letting ourselves be initiated by the facts and historical events that may have occurred not at birth, but certainly at the development of these cities. Towards the end of their existence, even before Vesuvius in its great "magnanimity" we safeguard them so that a thorough study is possible some millennium after, they lived in an opulence without equal, and their position in the context of the moment was certainly not insignificant. The eruption of 79 then froze the time, so that we find it awake today. So to speak of Rome and to understand how its birth has conditioned the ancient world and therefore these cities too, will allow us to better discover and know them. The contribution of Rome in this plain dictates of Vesuvius, has conditioned prodigiously what we are going to visualize today, to analyze it is therefore a step almost obligatory .......


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Greece

Starting in a strict search on a theme like Rome, requires us to follow two different directions, on the one hand the 'Myth', with its good dose of abstract that it entailed, very much related to the history of the Greece, and on the other hand try to find correspondence in the archeological sheets hoping that they could comfort the mythological assumptions that are still not too real. The 10-20 ° century BC, remains for the Italic earth a period of great myths and mysteries, it was positioned in the middle of two very distinct zone, between the known and the unknown; to orient the Greeks with the civilizations of Crete and Mycenae, without forgetting the Middle Eastern empires, places of knowledge and knowledge; the West a world of mystery where we knew almost nothing, and where history was all created. The 'italic' region becomes transition zone and borders for unknown land, to dominate and organize, but also center of great migratory movements that will be characterized by the sense of these regions: the Etruscans who leave Central Asia for s' establish in Tuscany in search of fertile land, and the Greek eros like Ulysses and Diomedes who leave one towards the Tyrrhenian Sea the other for the Adriatic Sea, and always Troy, with the departure of his prince beaten Aeneas in search of new lands to discover. We are around the 15th century BC, the story is written ... ..


EVANDRE : les faits mythologiques........ 

Dans les plus anciennes origines mythologiques, l'on raconte que le dieu Saturne abandonna l'Olympe pour descendre sur terre et vivre avec les hommes; il fut persécuté et fut forcé de se cacher afin de se sauver de la colère des Dieux. L'endroit où il trouva sa sérénité s'appelait Latium, en latin, "Cachette", et les gens qui l'habiteront plus tard s'appelleront Latini ou Latins. Cet endroit a accueilli le dieu Saturne, et il rendra cette terre calme et sans violence.
Ovide et Virgile, nous apprennent que les premiers habitants du Latium, alors sauvage, étaient les faunes et les nymphes, êtres primordiaux nés des mêmes éléments de la nature. Les hommes venus plus tard ont alors trouvé un environnement paisible et idyllique, régi par Saturne, un dieu bienveillant, éveillant les richesses de la terre et la fécondité du règne végétal. Cet être primordial était alors incorrectement associé à Cronos qui, comme on nous le dit, fut détrôné par son fils Jupiter (Zeus) pour devenir le roi italique de l'âge du bien-être et de la divinité principale du Latium. Tous les anciens peuples latins s'appelaient  en effet "gens saturnia". L'Italie elle-même, comme l'affirme Virgile, s'appelait à l'origine "Terrae Saturniae".

L'âge bienfaisant et paisible, fini, alors que la cohabitation civile du peuple fut remplacée par le vol, avec la discorde et avec la guerre. Les temps obscurs commencèrent avec les raids des Ausoni (peuple Osque de  Campanie) et des Sicanes (peuples de Sicile) contre lesquels le peuple Arcadien du roi Evandre, une population d'immigrants grecs de Pallante en Arcadie, fut obligé de combattre. Après diverses vicissitudes ils arrivèrent et s'installèrent sur la colline appelée par la suite Palatin, ou ils fondèrent un premier village qu'ils appelèrent Pallantium ou Palatium d'où dérive le nom de la colline Palatine. Un représentant de ces peuples voleurs et corrompus qui s'opposaient aux nouveaux arrivants, était Cacus, fils du dieu du feu Héphaïstos (Vulcain) et de Méduse. Il s'était réfugié sur la colline de l'Aventin dans une vaste et horrible caverne; il avait une constitution phisique géante et pour cela, il terrorisait les populations voisines auxquelles il n'épargnait aucune occasion de crime pour sa méchanceté innée.
Ses méfaits se terminèrent par l'intervention d'Hercule qui passa avec le troupeau de Géryon. Le géant Cacus alors, profitera de son sommeil pour lui voler du bétail avec un expédient habile, en les menant dans sa caverne. Quand il se réveilla, Hercule reprit son voyage, sans savoir que du bétail avait été volé. Comme il s'approcha de la caverne du Cacus, il entendit le beuglement plaintif des bêtes  prisonnières en réponse au beuglement de son troupeau. En comptant les bêtes, il remarqua le vol et se précipita immédiatement dans la caverne où, saisi de fureur, il attaqua le rocher de la caverne pour le secouer avec une grande puissance. Devant cette furie, la terre trembla et le héros, découvrit la grotte, parqua le géant  mourut.

Quand Hercule visita le roi Evandre, il l'accueillit, le purifia du meurtre de Cacus, il reconnut sa grande valeur et son origine divine et, par gratitude, il voua son culte à l'Ara Maxima, entre le Palatin et l'Aventin. , le Culte d'Hercule apporté ensuite dans les provinces de Campanie.  Evandre, le héros grec fils d'Hermès et la nymphe Nicostrata, était un bon roi. Cette qualité s'exprime aussi par son nom , en grec  Euandros qui signifie étymologiquement "homme bon". La raison de sa migration de la ville de Pallante en Arcadie, qui remonte à quelques décennies avant la fin de Troie, change selon la version racontée. Probablement, cela  pourrait avoir été causé par une famine ou un soulèvement populaire. Arrivé sur les terres du Latium, il s'installe avec sa mère et un groupe de Pelasginiens  sur la colline du Palatin, pour fonder sa cité mythique en l'honneur de son ancetre  Pallanteo. Ici, il fut bien reçu et accueilli par les aborigènes mais il  dû se battre contre le géant Erilus de Preneste, fils de la déesse Feronia.
La colline du Palatin avait été choisie par Nicostrata, appelée Carmenta par les habitants. Elle reçois des dons prophétiques et vas aider son fils dans la mission de civilisation du territoire. Evandre deviendras  propagateur de lois justes et enseigna aux indigènes l'art de l'écriture, la musique et de l'agriculture, le culte des dieux d'Arcadie de Cérès (Déméter), de Neptune (Poséidon) et surtout il transforme le culte préexistante du dieu Faune Lupercus , un dieu bienfaisant qui était très reconnu ici, descendant du dieu Mars, protecteur des troupeaux et des bergers, en celui de son similaire grec Pan-Licio, en l'honneur du quel furent instituées les fêtes des Lupercales qui étaient célébrées sur le Palatin en Février. Selon certaines sources, Faune était un roi primitif du Latium considéré comme le fils de Circé et Jupiter et père du suivant roi Latinus. Il était aussi le protecteur des faunes, des démons ruraux des bergers, équivalents aux satyres helléniques. Comme les satyres ils avaient en effet une double nature: moitié hommes et moitié animaux, avec cornes et sabots de chèvre.

[……Reference Wikipedia : Lupercales
Les Lupercales sont, dans la Rome antique, des fêtes annuelles célébrées par les luperques (les Luperques rassemblés dans le collège des Luperques étaient des prêtres de la Rome antique) du 13 au 15 février, près d'une grotte nommée le Lupercal (située au pied du mont Palatin et probablement découverte en novembre 2007), en l'honneur de Faunus, dieu des troupeaux qui les défendait contre les loups, d'où le qualificatif de Lupercus qui lui est attribué. ….]

Le culte du Faune modifié en celui de Pan impliquait une procession de Luperques, durant laquelle des jeunes à moitié nus, vêtus seulement d'une peau de chèvre, couraient dans les rues en battant notamment les femmes qui rencontraient avec des lanières de cuir frais pour favoriser leur fertilité . Un autre culte très important était adressé à Fauna, épouse de Fauno, également appelée "Bona Dea", qui avait son sanctuaire sous l'Aventin. Ici, chaque année, les femmes et les filles célébraient leurs mystères avec l'exclusion absolue des hommes, qui à leur tour les excluaient de celle d'Hercule. Evandre et sa mère Carmenta ont reçu l'honneur d'un autel, celui d'Evandre a été construit au pied de l'Aventin, près de la Porte Trigemina et de celle de Carmenta au pied du Capitolium, près de la porte Carmentalis.

Pendant ce temps, en Grèce, quelques décennies plus tard, une guerre perverse dans le pays, entre Athènes et Troie……..

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Paris Trojan prince 

The Trojan war, which highlights the Athenians and the Trojans rivalry is a war which follows the abduction of Helen, wife of Menelaus, King of Sparta, by the Trojan Paris. It is Homer makes us an almost full story and that we learn about the kinds of this conflict.
In Greek mythology, Paris also called Alexander, is the Trojan Prince, first son of Priam King of Sparta and his wife Hecuba. Pregnant Hecuba, receives an omen in a dream, he tells him that the future prince she carries in her womb will cause the destruction of the city of Troy after long battles. Seized by fear, King Priam ordered her other son Aesacros, that he had his wife previous called Arisbe, the born future is murdered: Paris will not be killed, but rather driven on Mount Ida, where it will be abandoned to his fate. Taken in by a group of shepherds, given the name of Alexandre, son protected by the mountain; It will be high and will grow up in peace. As an adult, it recognize its legitimate position of prince of Troy, son of Priam. The prince was good-looking and smart, he therefore drew the attention of Zeus, the supreme of Olympus. He sent Hermes to choose a wise and good man, and Hermes chooses Paris; It will be intended to choose which among the three most beautiful goddess of Olympus, deserves the Apple of discord. Indeed, when the gods were assembled for the celebration of the marriage of Thetis and LEEP, the goddess Eris, Goddess of discord, had not been admitted to participated at this party because ellen' was not considered to be part of the gods of Olympus, she wanted so to avenge. She plucked a magical golden apples that is valuable to the garden of Hesperides, on which she serious registration for the most beautiful, before launching it on Olympus, in the middle of them.

Helene Raptor

The three goddesses Aphrodite, Athena and Hera, find her and each thinks that she is destined, so claim her. Now, Hermes having found this shepherd Paris, it is to him who encumbers the task of deciding who deserves the Apple of Discord. The three divinities promise Paris presents to influence his choice: Athena promises him the victory, Hera tells him who are his biological parents and Aphrodite the love of who he wants, probably the most beautiful. Paris finally offers the prize to Aphrodite. He is henceforth protected by this goddess who will favor all his enterprises, and Aphrodite to thank him, promises him the love of the most beautiful woman, Helen of Menelaus kings of Sparta. Once his rank was recognized and found at Sparta, Paris took advantage of the absence of King Menelaus, who had gone to Crete, to remove Helen, Queen of Sparta. According to some versions, Paris seduces Helen and persuades her to flee with him to Troy. Ulysses and Menelaus go to Troy to claim the fugitive. But the different embassies remain unsuccessful. Menelaus once returned, then reminds the Greek kings of the oath they took to protect Helen whatever happens, and asks them to gather their armies to attack Troy. Many kings answer the call of Menelaus. The army led by Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, and brother of Menelaus, was sent to Troy to bring back the abducted wife. This is the beginning of the Trojan War, which will last ten years according to the stories of the Iliad.

Trojan War

The Greeks besiege Troy for ten years. The city with its citadel Pergamum is heroically defended by the Trojans. The unfolding of the war advances despite everything and everyone on his side accumulates victories and defeats, alternating successes and setbacks on both sides. This war was absolutely over and we had to find a solution. The Greek fleet besieging the city on the sea side decided to leave and give the impression of abandoning its assault. They arm the boats beyond the visual behind rocks, but before that, by order and initiative of Ulysses, the Greeks build a large wooden horse that they abandon on the shores of Troy. In this hidden horse, a contingent of armed soldiers. The departure of the ships of the Trojans, suggests that the Greek abandon the battle and that the war is finally over without restitution of Helen. Content of such a tour of facts, the Trojans let go at the party and head to the shores to retrieve the wooden Grand Horse to bring it to town and keep it as a souvenir of a victory dedicated to the Goddess Pallas-Athena. When darkness comes, Ulysses with a thousand ruses and his companions come out of the horse. They open the doors. The Greeks, who waited only for the signal, come out of their hiding place and come to help sack the city of which there will be only one survivor Aeneas who will have time to escape by the sea. teeth, all the Greeks are there. Troy is taken and set on fire, the Greeks are furious and nothing resists them. Men are killed, women and children kept as slaves. Menelaus is happy, he has found his wife, Helen.

Flight of Aeneas

Aeneas did not take part in the beginning of the Trojan War. But one day when he was keeping his flocks, he was attacked by Achilles, who stole some of his cattle. Aeneas fled to Lyrnessos but always pursued by Achilles, he had to flee under the protection of Zeus, and seek refuge in Troy, where he joined the Trojan army. He married one of Priam's daughters, Creuse, with whom he had a child, Ascagne whom he called Julus.
Aeneas, in Greek Aineias, son of Anchises and the goddess Aphroditeeneus is a Prince of Toe hero of the omonime war and also a hero of the Roman mytology, so much sung by Virgil. He was a brave warrior, he was one of the main Trojan leaders during the Trojan War, the most valiant warrior after Hector but he sometimes put himself in perilous situations, especially when he fought against Achilles. During the destruction of Troy and the murder of Priam and his family, Aeneas flees Troy sacked, carrying his father Anchises, blind and paralyzed, on his back, dragging his son Ascagne with one hand, holding in the other the gods of the city as well as the Palladium, the sacred statuette of Pallas-Athene. During the flight his wife, Creuse, lost himself. He was going to look for him when his shadow appeared to him indicating that she was now under the protection of Aphrodite. As for him, he had to leave with their son Ascagne and found a new dynasty.

Travel of Aeneas


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During an eventful trip in the Mediterranean described in the Aeneid. He made a stop in Thrace, passed through Delos, and then arrived in Crete. For more than seven years, he wandered the sea in search of a shore to welcome him, braving the storms and anger of the deities, especially that of Hera. On the point of touching the coasts of Italy, having made a stop in Sicily, at Drepanon, where the old Anchises died, the ships of Aeneas were suddenly thrown down by a storm on the African coast near Carthage. Queen Dido, the founder of Carthage, welcomed the hero and fell in love with her. During a hunting party when a storm has gathered in a cave, they become lovers. But the gods did not want a union between Dido and Aeneas; Zeus ordered him to return to the shores of Sicily, where he received the hospitality of King Alceste and celebrated funeral games in memory of his father. Having finally reached the coast of Italy at Cumae, he decided to rest some time in this ancient Greek colony, and here he descended to the underworld, guided by the Sibyl, to consult the shadow of his father and listen to him. tell him to found a city here and create other dynasties. Back among the living, he went to Lazio and he considers that the land is favorable for a new family to develop, which he will do.

Aeneas in Lazio

Resuming the sea after having remained for some time in Carthage near Queen Elyssa, Didon for the Romans, Aeneas returning to the Tyrrhenian Sea, approaches the peninsular coast of southern Italy and, during a storm, near the region of Lucania in Calabria, he lost one of these most faithful Palinure men. It will be buried on the coast even in these places near a castling which will take the still existing name of Palinuro. Aeneas is traveling again because these Calabrian lands were too mountainous and lack of water sources was important. It continues towards the north and will arrive in the land dictates of the "Phalerum" that people the Falerii who will later take the denomination of Parthenopeans and, to the conquest of the Romans, this land will be called Neapolis. After a brief stay not far in the Greek colony of Cumae where he will speak to his father Anchise thanks to the help of the Sybille, the latter will inform him that the Greek troops his not far from looking for him, it was therefore necessary that he hurry up to find a place in this land to refuse.
After two days of sailing, in a beautiful morning of sun were found facing a rich coast with a beautiful plain back, crossed by a river of large dimensions. He had arrived on the lands of King Latinus, these inhabitants of the shepherds of average bill the Latins, he was at LATIUM.


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